Iron Ore
Iron Ore in one's hand

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, which is one of the main raw materials to make steel—98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel. Iron is the world's most commonly used metal—steel, of which iron ore is the key ingredient, representing almost 95% of all metal used per year. It is used primarily in structures, ships, automobiles, and machinery.


Manganese is a hard, brittle, silvery metal, often found in minerals in combination with iron. Manganese is a transition metal with a multifaceted array of industrial alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. It improves strength, workability, and resistance to wear. Manganese oxide is used as an oxidising agent; as a rubber additive; and in glass making, fertilisers, and ceramics. Manganese sulfate can be used as a fungicide.

Manganese rock on a table
Chrome Ore

Chromite is a crystalline mineral composed primarily of iron(II) oxide and chromium(III) oxide compounds. It can be used as a refractory material, because it has a high heat stability. The chromium extracted from chromite is used in chrome plating and alloying for production of corrosion resistant superalloys, nichrome, and stainless steel. Chromium is used as a pigment for glass, glazes, and paint, and as an oxidizing agent for tanning leather.

Rock Phosphate

Rock Phosphate is a non-detrital sedimentary rock that contains high amounts of phosphate minerals. Approximately 90% of rock phosphate production is used for fertilizer and animal feed supplements and the balance for industrial chemicals. In addition to phosphate fertilisers for agriculture, phosphorus from rock phosphate is also used in animal-feed supplements, food preservatives, baking flour, pharmaceuticals, anticorrosion agents, cosmetics, fungicides, insecticides, detergents, ceramics, water treatment and metallurgy.

Rock Phosphate ore in the open